Bioterrorism Case Study Quizlet Login

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Term
Describe twenty-first century nursing concerns regarding improved health.
Definition
There are new concerns about access to care, the ability to maintain affordable insurance coverage, quality of services, new warnings about possible increases in costs, bioterrorism, and global health threats such as infectious diseases and contaminated foods.
Term
Explain how bioterrorism threats and the events of September 11th impact the health care system.
Definition
The threats of bioterrorism highlighted by the events of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax scares, will divert health care funds and resources from other health care programs to be spent for public safety.
Term
What impact have population based programs implemented in the 1970s had?
Definition
Population-based preventive programs launched in the 1970s are largely responsible for the more recent changes in tobacco use, blood pressure control, dietary patterns (except obesity), automobile safety restraint ,and injury control measures that have fostered declines in adult death rates.
Term
What are the essential services of public health?
Definition
- Assessment
1) Monitor health status to identify community health problems
2) Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community
- Policy Development
3) Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues
4) Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems
5) Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts
- Assurance
6) Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety
7) Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provisions of health care when otherwise unavailable
8) Ensure a competent public health and personal health care workforce
9) Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services
Term
How does the Institute of Medicine describe the mission of public health?
Definition
The committee stated that the mission of public health was “to generate organized community effort to address the public interest in health by applying scientific and technical knowledge to prevent disease and promote health.”
Term
How does the Institute of Medicine describe the mission of public health?
Definition
The committee stated that the mission of public health was “to generate organized community effort to address the public interest in health by applying scientific and technical knowledge to prevent disease and promote health.”
Term
Identify and describe the core public health functions.
Definition
- Assessment: refers to systemically collecting data on the population, monitoring the population’s health status, and making information available about the health of the community.
- Policy Development: refers to the need to provide leadership in developing policies that support the health of the population, including the use of the scientific knowledge base in making decisions about policy.
- Assurance: refers to the role of public health in ensuring that essential community-oriented health services are available, which may include providing essential personal health services for those who would otherwise not receive them. Assurance also refers to making sure that a competent public health and personal health care workforce is available.
Term
Identify indicators (i.e. socio-demographic characteristics, health status, functional status) used to develop a community health profile (Box 1-1).
Definition
- Socio-demographic characteristics: distribution of the population by age and race/ethnicity, number and proportions of persons in groups such as migrants, homeless, or the non-English speaking, for whom access to community services and resources may be a concern, etc.
- Health status: infant death rate by race/ethnicity, reported incidence of AIDS, measles, tb, and primary and secondary syphilis, by age, race, and sex as appropriate, etc.
- Health risk factors: proportion of the population aged 18 and older who are obese, etc.
- Health care resource consumption: per capita health care spending for Medicare beneficiaries
- Functional status: proportion of adults reporting that their general health is good to excellent, average number of days for which adults report that their physical or mental health was not good
- Quality of life: proportion of adults satisfied with the health care system in the community and proportion of persons satisfied with the quality of life in the community
Term
Identify the core competencies of public health practitioners as outlined by the Council on Linkages (Box 1-2).
Definition
These include: analytic/assessment, policy development/program planning, communication, cultural competency, community dimensions of practice, basic public health services, financial planning and management, and leadership and systems thinking.
Term
Why is public health nursing a specialty?
Definition
It is a specialty because it has a distinct focus and scope of practice, and it requires a special knowledge base. The following characteristics distinguish public health nursing as specialty: it is population-based, it is community-oriented, there is a health and preventive focus, interventions are made at the community or population level, and there is concern for the health of all members of the population/community, particularly vulnerable subpopulations.
Term
What are the basic educational requirements of public health nurses?
Definition
At the basic or entry level, a public health nurse is one who “holds a baccalaureate degree in nursing that includes this educational preparation; this nurse may or may not practice in an official health agency but has the initial qualifications to do so.” Specialists in public health nursing are defined as those who are prepared at the graduate level, with either a master’s or doctoral degree, “with a focus in the public health sciences.”
Term
Identify examples of work that graduate prepared public health nurses should be able to do.
Definition
Public health nursing specialists “should be able to work with population groups and to assess and intervene successful at the aggregate level.” Areas considered essential for preparation of specialists in public health nursing include: epidemiology, biostatistics, nursing theory, management theory, change theory, economics, politics, public health administration, community assessment, program planning and evaluation, interventions at the aggregate level, research, history of public health, issues in public health.
Term
Identify examples of work that graduate prepared public health nurses should be able to do.
Definition
Public health nursing specialists “should be able to work with population groups and to assess and intervene successful at the aggregate level.” Areas considered essential for preparation of specialists in public health nursing include: epidemiology, biostatistics, nursing theory, management theory, change theory, economics, politics, public health administration, community assessment, program planning and evaluation, interventions at the aggregate level, research, history of public health, issues in public health.
Term
Identify examples of work that graduate prepared public health nurses should be able to do.
Definition
Public health nursing specialists “should be able to work with population groups and to assess and intervene successful at the aggregate level.” Areas considered essential for preparation of specialists in public health nursing include: epidemiology, biostatistics, nursing theory, management theory, change theory, economics, politics, public health administration, community assessment, program planning and evaluation, interventions at the aggregate level, research, history of public health, issues in public health.
Term
Describe an aggregate or population.
Definition
An aggregate or population is a collection of individuals who have one or more personal or environmental characteristics in common
Term
Differentiate between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
Definition
- Primary prevention: The public health nurse develops a health education program for a population of school-age children that teaches them about the effects of smoking.
- Secondary prevention: The public health nurse provides an influenza vaccination program in a community retirement village.
- Tertiary prevention: The public health nurse provides a diabetes clinic for a defined population of adults in a low-income housing unit of the community.
Term
Review the Eight Principles of Public Health Nursing (Box 1-5).
Definition
1) The client or “unit of care” is the population.
2) The primary obligation is to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number of people or the population as a whole.
3) The processes used by public health nurses include working with the client(s) as an equal partner.
4) Primary prevention is the priority in selecting appropriate activities.
5) Selecting strategies that create healthy environmental, social, and economic conditions in which populations may thrive is the focus.
6) There is an obligation to actively reach out to all who might benefit from a specific activity or service.
7) Optimal use of available resources to assure the best overall improvement in the health of the population is a key element of the practice.
8) Collaboration with a variety of other professions, organizations, and entities is the most effective way to promote and protect the health of the people.
Term
Describe the difference between public health nursing and community health nursing.
Definition
- The focus of public health nursing practice is the community as a whole and the effect of the community’s health status on the health of individuals, families, and groups. Care is provided within the context of preventing disease and disability and promoting and protecting the health of the community as a whole.
- The focus of community health nursing practice is the health of individuals, families, and groups and the effect of their health status on the health of the community as a whole.
Term
Given the future direction of health care, why is population focused care important?
Definition
Because the primary focus of the health care system of the future will be on community-oriented strategies for health promotion and disease prevention, and on community-based strategies for primary and secondary care.
Term
What is the significance of quality performance standards in public health?
Definition
It is used to target public health improvements needed in a community so the most efficient and effective use of new resources can be applied to interventions that work.
Term
Describe source of the IOM’s findings regarding the number of preventable deaths.
Definition
The healthcare system is expensive, and access and quality are not optimal. IOM found that between 44K-98K people die each year from preventable medical errors. (pg. 47) Possible sources of error include diagnostic, treatment, prevention, failure of communication, equipment failures, and other system failures. In regards to the nurse’s role, IOM found that nurses long work hours pose one of the most serious threats to patient safety. Fatigue slows reaction time, saps energy, and diminishes attention to detail. A law was passed that prevented nurses from working >12 hrs/day, >60 hrs/wk. (pg. 50)
Term
In what areas do the majority of medical errors occur?
Definition
Most errors occur in intensive care units, operating rooms, and emergency departments. (pg. 50)
Term
Define and describe “disparities”.
Definition
Disparities are defined as racial or ethnic differences in the quality of health care, not based on access or clinical needs, preferences, or appropriateness of an intervention. (pg. 48) Disparities are the gaps or inequalities that exist between two or more groups that are the result of the complex interaction of personal, societal, and environmental factors (not always race or ethnic background). Immigrants, rural residents, women/children/elderly, and people with disabilities are examples of groups that are at risk for health disparities. (Finkelman, pg. 226 and www.nih.gov)
Term
Review Box 3-2 that described facts about the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act.
Definition
The bill was passed in 2003, but went into effect Jan.1st, 2006; had to be enrolled to receive benefit, the costs varied and included premiums, co-pay, and deductible; once the individual spent $3600/yr, Medicare covered 95% of the rest of the costs. (pg. 48)
Term
Describe the origins of the significant increase in uninsured individuals in 2003.
Definition
The U.S. Census Bureau attributed this increase in uninsured individuals to the drop in coverage from employment-based health plans, due to the increased costs of insurance premiums. (pg. 49)
Term
Explain the significance and purpose of tele-health.
Definition
Tele-health allows the HCP or nurse to assess a patient from the comfort of the patient’s home, via a monitor and telephone line, like Skype. This increases access to health care for patient’s who live further away from health care facilities. The telehealth device is installed in the patient’s home and provides a high resolution image of the patient, for a more accurate visual assessment. This technology allows for better management of patients with chronic conditions, home care, rehab, and long term care. (pg. 52)
Term
Describe the benefits of an electronic health record.
Definition
Information is digital, privacy-protected, and interchangeable, which improves client safety. Benefits that the electronic medical record, or EMR, provides for public health nursing include 24 hour availability of records with lab results and up-to-date assessments, facilitation of interdisciplinary care, coordination of referrals, incorporation of protocol reminders for prevention, screening, and management of chronic disease, production of client reminders to improve compliance, and improved security when compared to paper records. (pg. 52)
Term
• Explain what is meant by the term globalization.
Definition
Globalization is defined as a trend toward an increased flow of goods, services, money, and disease across national borders. (pg. 48) It is the process of change and development across national boundaries and oceans, involving economics, trade, politics, technology, and social welfare. With immigration, trade, and air travel, no place on earth is completely safe from infectious disease. (pg. 53)
Term
Describe the purpose and function of the World Health Organization.
Definition
The WHO manages public health emergencies of international concern by coordinating surveillance and respond at the global level. WHO prevents, protects against, controls, and provides a public health response to the international spread of disease. (pg. 53)
Term
Describe the purpose and functions of “community health centers”
Definition
Community health centers are the backbone of the public system for primary care; they are public, non-profit and receive funding from federal sources. They must be located in or serve a medically underserved area/population, provide comprehensive primary care services and supportive services, such as translation and transportation, and their services must be available to all residents of their service area (fees are adjusted based on the client’s ability to pay). (pg. 53)
Term
Identify the main goals of Healthy People 2020.
Definition
There is a new focus on identifying, tracking, measuring, and reducing health disparities and increasing the years and quality of healthy life in HP 2020. In addition to the goals of 2010, 2020 has added new topics like adolescent health, blood disorders and blood safety, dementias, including Alzheimer’s disease, early and middle childhood, genomics, global health, healthcare-associated infections, health-related quality of life and well-being, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health, older adults, preparedness, sleep health, and social determinants of health. The overarching goals are to attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death; achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups; create social and physical environments that promote good health for all; and promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages. (www.healthypeople.gov/2020)
Term
Explain the difference between primary care and public (primary?) health care
Definition
Primary care is part of the private health care system, and is described as the care provided to an individual by a HCP trained in family medicine, pediatrics, or internal medicine. Public health care is defined by a broad range of services, such as basic health services, family planning, clean water supply, sanitation, immunization, and nutrition education. Programs are designed to be affordable for both the recipients and the funding source. Public health care emphasizes preventative care at the community level, and is accessible and acceptable to the community. Community health centers are the “backbone” of public health care, and are public, nonprofit, and receive federal funding. (pg. 53 and Tbl. 3-3)
Term
Describe the purpose and function of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Definition
The main purpose of the USDHHS is to regulate healthcare and oversee the health status of Americans. There are many familiar agencies that fall under the USDHHS umbrella, such as FDA, CDC, NIH, and Health Resources and Services Administration. (pgs. 58-59)
Term
Explain the purpose and function of the Department of Homeland Security.
Definition
The main purpose and function of the DHS is to prevent and deter terrorist attacks, and protect against and respond to threats and hazards to the nation. DHS’s goals include awareness, prevention, protection, response, and recovery. Nurses may be called upon by DHS to respond to acts of terrorism or natural disasters. (pg. 60)
Term
Describe medical errors and untoward events that were outline in the 1999 IOM report.
Definition
These errors included adverse drug events and improper transfusions, surgical injuries and wrong site surgery, suicides, restraint-related injuries or death, falls, burns, pressure ulcers, and mistaken client identities. (pg. 50)
Term
Describe public health economics-
Definition
focuses on the producing, distributing, and consuming of goods and services as related to public health. There has not been a lot of focus on this side of economics so there is a lot of conflict about money distribution when it comes to public health care.
Term
Describe the “four phases” of the health care system-
Definition
1st phase (1800-1900): epidemics of infectious diseases (cholera, typhoid, smallpox, influenza, malaria, yellow fever), social and public health issues (contaminated food and water, inadequate sewage, poor housing), family and friends provided health care, few hospital a lot of sick, paid for through bartering or those who could afford services, first county health department, nurses to support physicians and assist with ADLs.
2nd phase (1900-1945): focused on control of acute infectious diseases, environmental conditions began to improve, rapid growth of hospitals and health departments, governments start to provide finances, Social Security Act, advances in surgery and childbirth, able to diagnose and control infectious disease (quarantine), insulin, sulfa drugs, antibiotics, school s of nursing, physicians attended college, focus on client education
3rd phase (1945-1984): focus on chronic health problems (heart disease, cancer, stroke), started hospital clinics and long term care, Joint Commission, technological advances, immunizations, health care employees increased by 90%, nursing shortage, increased special training, diploma schools of nursing, graduate and doctoral nursing, Medicare and Medicaid
4th phase (1984-present): limited resources, focus on containing costs, restricting growth, reorganizing health care delivery, hospital closings, focus on community based clinics, widespread use of computers to manage health and increase knowledge, dependent on technology to care for clients, emphasis on primary care, increase in specialization
Term
Describe types of managed care arrangements-HMO:
Definition
per member per month fee using designated providers PPO: predetermined rates for services with financial incentives to select providers
Term
Describe what is meant by the term health economics-
Definition
concerned with how scarce resources affect the health care industry
Term
Differentiate between Medicare Part A and Medicare Part B-
Definition
Medicare A- financed by federal payroll tax, available to all persons eligible for Medicare, deductible for first 60 days, reduced deductible after that
Medicare B- supplemental program for a monthly premium, provides coverage for services not provided for with A, up to 80% covered, like private insurance
Term
Describe how health policy impacts nursing –
Definition
‘Health policy’ refers to a set course of action that should be followed by a government or institution to reach a health-related goal. Health policy can be set by governments, agencies, or other organizations. Health policy impacts nursing because it determines how health programs are financed, how resources are allocated and used, and who can implement programs. This has direct effects on nursing by creating (or reducing) nursing jobs, determining nursing goals for individuals and communities (such as immunizations, or well-child visits), and guiding nursing research.
Term
Definition
“Devolution” is when the responsibility for planning, financing, and delivering government programs is shifted from the federal government to state governments. An example of this was in the 1980s when the Regan administration shifted many federal programs for health care to the states.
Term
Definition
“Block grants” are one way the federal government gives money to local areas so they can implement programs; block grants are often given with a broad focus, so local agencies can have more control over the details of how they spend the funds (for example, a block grant for ‘energy and home heating’ can be used to fund the heating of a homeless shelter).
Term
Compare and contrast the roles of federal, state and local health agencies --
Definition
All three types of health agencies provide direct heath care services to certain populations (federal to military personnel and families for example, states for inmates in state prisons for example); all 3 pay for some health services and training of health care providers (state and federal fund through Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, SCHIP, etc); all 3 collect and analyze health care data; all 3 set health policy. The federal government is responsible for protecting the public’s health (FDA, EPA, and others). The quality of state and local health agencies varies widely depending on the commitment to public health of their government bodies and the access to funding these agencies have. Most health services provided by local agencies are provided by nurses.
Term
• Review section on functions of public health nurses. Be able to identify public health nursing roles and functions –
Definition
Public health nursing is population-focused, community-oriented, focuses on health and prevention, intervenes at the community of population level, and is concerned with the health of all members of the population (especially vulnerable members). Public health nursing uses ASSESSEMENT, POLICY DEVELOPMENT, and ASSURANCE.
Term
8 principles of public health nursing (p.11)
Definition
1. the client is the population
2. primary obligation is greatest good for greatest number of people
3. works with client as an equal partner
4. primary prevention is a priority
5. focus is on creating healthy environmental, social, and economic conditions
6. obligation to actively reach out to those who could benefit
7. optimal use of available resources
8. collaboration with other professionals
Possible roles: director of nursing for a health department, state commissioner of health, director of maternal and child health services for a state or local health department
Term
Identify and describe the three levels of practice that the Intervention Wheel encompasses
Definition
1: individuals/families: this can mean individuals independently or in groups, and describes public health nursing that directly impacts families and specific people or groups of people (think direct care) EX: provide & monitor immunization status of individuals who need them.
2: communities as a whole: This encompasses programs that are designed to impact the entire community (ie community health programs like putting fluoride in city water).
3: systems that impact health communities: Think public health/nursing policies, healthcare reform, etc.
Term
Describe how the Intervention Wheel has been implemented since it was published in 1998
Definition
The Wheel was highlighted in a Minnesota public health conference series, and has been viewed by thousands of public health nurses here and worldwide. Various departments of health in the US have used the Wheel to “reinvigorate” public health nursing practice and to orient new staff (including non nursing staff like social workers and physicians) to population based practice. It has been adapted for use with Indian populations. Nursing schools use the Wheel as a framework for teaching community health nursing classes.
Term
Describe the origins of the Intervention Wheel
Definition
The wheel came out of the work of public health nurses in Minnesota in the 1990s. During this time, the contributions of public health nurses to the improvement of public health was under debate. In response to this debate, a group of nurses presented a series of workshops highlighting the functions of public health nursing. At these workshops, participants (public health nurses) described specific actions they took to complete their work. These actions were compiled, analyzed, and pared down to 17 actions (read: interventions) common to all public health nurses. These 17 interventions were reviewed by graduate nursing students and “expert” panels, and supporting evidence in literature was identified for each intervention. From this, a final list of interventions was generated, each with a set of steps for applying it and recommendations for best practice.
Term
Describe the 10 assumptions that underlie the Intervention Wheel.
Definition
Assumption 1: Defining public health nursing practice: Practice that promotes and protects the health of populations using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health science.
Assumption 2: Public health nursing practice focuses on populations (differentiates PHN from other forms of nursing: Categories of populations are populations at risk (people with a common risk factor, like hypertensive adults) and population of interest (people who are healthy but could benefit from more health teaching, like teenagers. Or everyone.)
Assumption 3: Public health nursing considers the determinants of health:Determinants of health are factors that influence health status throughout all of life, like biology (genetics) and environment. Related factors include income, social status, education, literacy, employment, health services, coping skills, etc.
Assumption 4: Public health nurses assess community health, develop priorities based on assessments, and these priorities are the focus of nursing practice: collecting data about the communities in which they work in order to identify and prioritize community needs
Assumption 5: Public Health nursing practice emphasizes prevention
focus on prevention, specifically primary prevention whenever possible.
Assumption 6: Public health nurses intervene at all levels of practice:Community level interventions involve entire populations within the community, populations at risk, or populations of interest. Systems level involves changing organizations, policies, laws, and power structures in the community. Individual level is addressing the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices, and behaviors of individuals/families either alone or in groups.
Assumption 7: Public health nursing practice uses the nursing process at all levels of practice
public health nurses customize the nursing process to fit each level of practice (system/community/individual). On the systems level, the nurse may assess the impact of various policies/laws on a health problem while on the individual level she/he assesses the coping skills/ health risks of a person/family.
Assumption 8: All public health nurses use a common set of interventions
No matter what level nurses practice at, they use the 17 common interventions encompassed in the Wheel.
Assumption 9: Implementing public health interventions helps to achieve the 10 essential public health services
The 10 essential public health services (from Chapter 1, pg 5-6) describe what the public health system does to protect/promote public health, and interventions are the means to complete these essential services. Interventions are the how of public health practice.
Assumption 10: Public health nursing is grounded in values and beliefs!
Cornerstones include: population based/focused, grounded in social justice, focus on greater good, focus on health promotion/disease prevention, organize community resources, driven by science of epidemiology, do what others cannot/will not.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Surveillance:
Definition
Nurses use ongoing data collection and population analysis to plan, implement, and evaluate public health policies and interventions. They test the population to make sure programs and policies are having the intended effect.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Disease and other health event investigation:
Definition
Nurses identify threats to public health (ie, potential communicable disease), gather data, find the source of the threat, ID populations at risk, and find ways to control the disease/problem.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Outreach:
Definition
Nurses find at risk populations/populations of interest and bring needed health information to them. (ie teaching teens about safe sex)
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Screening:
Definition
Help people check for emerging health problems/risk for health problems that has gone unnoticed.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Case finding:
Definition
ID at risk families and connect them with needed resources.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Referral and follow up:
Definition
Help individuals/families/communities/organizations locate and make use of the resources they need to solve problems. (Problem could be community wide, like homelessness, or individual, like needing a counselor for mental health problems).
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Case management:
Definition
Work with individuals/families/communities to enhance their ability either for self care or for care of their family/community members.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Delegated functions:
Definition
Any direct care tasks entrusted to the nurse under the authority of a health care practitioner, or any direct care tasks the nurse delegates to other team members.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Health teaching:
Definition
Share knowledge/ideas/skills to help change attitudes/values/beliefs/behaviors of individuals/communities/systems. (Teach people things.)
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Counseling:
Definition
Establish an interpersonal relationship that engages the person/community/system at an emotional level and enhances self care and coping abilities. (Apparently, yes, you can counsel a system)
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Collaboration:
Definition
Help people/organizations work with others to meet mutual public health goals.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Coalition building:
Definition
Promote alliances between organizations/individuals. Goals of alliances are to solve problems and enhance local leadership, all in an effort to address health concerns. Build coalitions that can be public health leaders.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Community organizing:
Definition
Support community groups in their ability to ID problems/goals and develop resources/strategies to address them.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Advocacy:
Definition
Act on someone’s behalf/plead their cause, help them to speak up for themselves.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Social marketing:
Definition
Use commercial marketing and technologies to promote community health programs and health policies. Often used to impact the attitudes/behaviors of populations of interest.
Term
Nursing wheel intervention
Policy development and enforcement:
Definition
Push health issues in gov’t and with organizations’ governing bodies, and ensure that others comply with the laws/regulations that result from these policies.
Term
Explain “outcome health indicators” and how they impact nursing interventions.
Definition
“Outcome health indicators” is just another way of saying “outcomes.” These are goals, and measure the impact of interventions. Examples for a family at risk for problems arising from poor parenting include “no reports of child maltreatment” and “child attends preschool.” Outcomes that are achieved indicate that the intervention was effective. Unachieved outcomes indicate a need to revise interventions.
Term
Identify examples of modifiable health related behaviors.
Definition
Positive behaviors – diet, exercise
Avoidance behaviors – substance abuse
Term
Describe the two paradigms from which the key concepts of nursing science can be viewed as outlined by Laffrey, Loveland-Cherry, and Winkler (the disease paradigm, the health paradigm).
Definition
Disease paradigm – health defined as absence of disease; health care focuses on IDing what is not working properly within a given system and repairing it; health behavior based on how client complies with health professional’s recommendations

Health paradigm – health defined as fluid, flexible process; humans complex & interconnected with environment; health behavior involved holistic view of person’s lifestyle & interaction with environment (not judged simply by compliance with regimen)
Term
Describe the terms “victim blaming” and “top-down attitude”. How do these approaches impact community members?
Definition
Victim blaming – placing all of the responsibility for health behavior on the individual – excludes community; leads people to feel victimized and helpless
Top-down attitude – giving the community the sole responsibility for people’s health behaviors – patronizing; leads people to feel as if they have no control
Term
Describe the two major dimensions of the integrative model (client system and focus of care).
Definition
Client system – multidimensional system that includes various levels of clients toward which nursing care is targeted (individual, family, aggregate, community)
Focus of care – includes health promotion, illness (disease & disability) prevention, and illness care – goal of health care is healthier community, achieved through health promotion interventions
Term
Describe what the “Guide to Clinical Preventative Services” is.
Definition
A free resource to help clients choose programs and policies to improve health and prevent disease in their community; provides most recent recommendations for preventive interventions
Term
Review primary, secondary and tertiary prevention discussion and examples
Definition
Primary – preventing health problem from happening at all (for diabetes – maintain normal weight, exercise regularly, reduce intake of carbohydrates)
Secondary – reducing risk for health problem (test blood glucose level regularly)
Tertiary – achieving optimal level of wellness for the individual; rehabilitation (begin treatment to include diabetic diet, regular exercise, medication)
Term
Describe and differentiate between health maintenance, illness prevention and health promotion (tables 14-1 and 14-2 for application examples)
Definition
Health maintenance – keeping current state of health
Illness prevention – behavior aimed at reducing threat of illness/disease
Health promotion – behavior aimed at achieving a greater level of health
Term
Describe health risk appraisals and wellness inventories.
Definition
HRA – extensive questionnaire that assesses risks to health; can encompass broad range or be specifically targeted; data compared with epidemiologic studies to predict individuals’ risk of morbidity/mortality and to suggest areas in which disease risks may be reduced
Wellness inventories – focus on wellness and are often used in nurse-managed centers; define health risks more broadly and lead to health promotion as well as disease prevention and risk reduction
Term
Describe advantages of health risk appraisals

NOTE: The following is a list of preparation and planning resources related specifically to bioterrorism. For resources relevant to preparation and planning for all  types of emergencies, please see Emergency Preparedness and Response: Preparation and Planning.

Preparation & Planning for Specific Agents

  • Anthrax
  • Smallpox
  • More information about specific agents can be found on the Bioterrorism Agents page.

Preparation & Planning for All Bioterrorism

  • Considerations for Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) Post-Exposure Prioritization
  • Public Health Emergency Response Guide for State, Local, & Tribal Public Health Directors
    All-hazards reference tool for health professionals who are responsible for initiating the public health response during the first 24 hours (i.e., the acute phase) of an emergency or disaster. Guide available in English and Spanish
  • Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks
    May 2002. From the National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health, CDC
    PDF (605 KB/40 pages)
  • Bioterrorism Readiness Plan: A Template for Healthcare Facilities
  • Guidance on Initial Responses to a Suspicious Letter/Container With a Potential Biological Threat(241 KB/6 pages)
    Guidelines for local responders, based on existing procedures, on the initial response to letters, packages, or containers containing suspicious powders, liquids, or other materials. Developed by HHS/CDC, FBI, & DHS.
  • Cooperative Agreement Guidance for Public Health Emergency Preparedness
    Guidance for CDC emergency preparedness funding for states. CDC has announced the availability of FY 2006 funding for continuation of the cooperative agreements to upgrade state & local public health jurisdictions’ preparedness for & response to bioterrorism, other outbreaks of infectious disease, & other public health threats & emergencies.
  • Community-Based Mass Prophylaxis: A Planning Guide for Public Health Preparedness
    Planning guide to help state, county, & local officials meet federal requirements to prepare for public health emergencies. Outlines five components of mass prophylaxis response to epidemic outbreaks. Addresses dispensing operations using a comprehensive operational structure for Dispensing/Vaccination Centers (DVCs) based on the National Incident Management System (NIMS). (Developed by Weill Medical College of Cornell University for the Agency of Healthcare Research & Quality [AHRQ].)
  • Public Health Response to Biological & Chemical Terrorism: Interim Planning Guidance for State Public Health Officials (1.12 MB/106 pages)
  • MMWR: Biological & Chemical Terrorism: Strategic Plan for Preparedness & Response
    Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup.
    MMWR Recommendations & Reports 2000 Apr 21;49(RR-4);1-14.
    (204 KB/26 pages)
  • Strategic National Stockpile
    National repository of pharmaceuticals & medical supplies.
  • Epi-X: The Epidemic Information Exchange
    Secure, Web-based communications network connecting CDC with state & local health departments, poison control centers, & other public health professionals.
  • Regulations to control communicable diseases(9 KB/1 page)
    42 U.S.C. 264 (From United States Code Annotated; Title 42; The Public Health & Welfare; Chapter 6a--Public Health Service; Subchapter Ii--General Powers & Duties.; Part G--Quarantine & Inspection).
  • Interstate Quarantine
    From United States Code Annotated; Title 42; The Public Health & Welfare; Part 70. On U.S. Government Printing Office site.
  • Foreign Quarantine
    From United States Code Annotated; Title 42; The Public Health & Welfare; Part 71. On U.S. Government Printing Office site.

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