Palakonda Mla Bibliography

1. Yelamanchili – Yelamanchili is a municipality in Visakhapatnam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. This town has historical importance dating back to 7th Century AD, yelamanchilii was once called as ella - majili, which is the border village of Kalinga and Andhra empires. This place was used for the collection of taxes as it is on the border of these areas, the Kotturu Dhanadibbalu Buddhist and Dharapalem Hindu sites respectively are near this town. This particular area of Yelamanchili was once under the rule of Andhra-Sathavahanas, some Pre-historic findings were excavated from the surroundings of Panchadharla, Dharapalem and Yelamanchili surrounding Hills of Eastern Ghats. Research work is under progress on these excavations, and recently found lord venkateswara swamy statue, the village of Sarvasiddhi was constructed by Eastern Chalukyas King Kubja Vishnuvardhan during 615 CE. Vishnuvardhana ruled over a kingdom extending from Nellore to Visakhapatnam and he assumed the title of Vishamasiddhi. Vishnuvardhana participated in the wars between his brother Putekesin II and the Pallava Narasimhavarma I and probably lost his life in battle in 641 CE and this area was under the Eastern Chalukyas. Yelamanchili was under the rule of Eastern Chalukyas as some edicts were found by the name of Vijayaditya VII at Yelamanchili, the famous Dharmalingeswara Temple at Panchadharla was believed to be constructed along with the famous shrine Simhachalam in Visakhapatnam. As of Census 2011 the town has population of 27,265 of which 13,365 are males and 13,900 are females, average Sex Ratio is of 1040 against state average of 993. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 2587 which is 9. 49% of total population of Yelamanchili, child Sex Ratio in the town is around 926 compared to Andhra Pradesh state average of 939. Literacy rate of Yelamanchili town is 77. 14% higher than average of 67. 02%. Yelamanchil is well-connected by rail and road, most express trains do halt at this station. Buses are available from all parts of area in the state, the medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu. List of municipalities in Andhra Pradesh

2. Visakhapatnam – Visakhapatnam is the largest city, both in terms of area and population in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the coast of Bay of Bengal in the eastern region of the state. It is the headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and also the Financial Capital of Andhra Pradesh. As of 2011, the population of the city was recorded as 2,035,922, making it the 14th largest city in the country, Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth busiest port in India in terms of cargo handled. Visakhapatnam is home to the oldest shipyard and the natural harbour on the east coast of India. Visakhapatnams history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, historically, it was considered part of the Kalinga ancient region, and later ruled by the Vengi kingdom, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties. Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until Indias independence in 1947. After independence, Visakhapatnam developed into one of the chief ports. The city is located between the Eastern Ghats mountain range and the Bay of Bengal, and is known as The Jewel of the East Coast, The City of Destiny. Visakhapatnams beaches, parks, museums, and proximity to areas of beauty have helped the city become a significant tourist destination. Visakhapatnam has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a city under PM Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. Visakhapatnam was ranked as the fifth cleanest city in India according to the governments Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings, the name Visakhapatnam was derived from the shrine of God Visakha, built by a King of Andhrain 4th century. The city coordinates lies between 17. 6883° N latitude, and 83. 2186° E longitude and its periphery consists of plains along the coast line while the interiors boast of the beautiful hills of the Eastern Ghats which surround it on the North and the West. This region is called the Agency Division. It occupies an area of approximately 11,161 km2, visakhapatnams history stretches back to the 6th century B. C. E. and the city finds mention in ancient texts, such as the 4th century B. C. E. Historically considered part of the Kalinga region, it was ruled by the Vengi kingdom, archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries C. E. by the Chola Dynasty king Kulothunga I. Control over the city fluctuated between the Chola Dynasty of Tamil Nadu and the Gajapati Kingdom of Odisha until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century, in the 16th century, it was conquered by the Mughals. European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, the city was ruled by Andhra Kings of Vengi and Pallavas

3. Andhra Pradesh – Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of the country. The state is the eighth largest state in India covering an area of 162,968 km2, as per 2011 Census of India, the state is tenth largest by population with 49,386,799 inhabitants. On 2 June 2014, the portion of the state was bifurcated to form a new state of Telangana. In accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act,2014, Hyderabad will remain the de jure capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of not exceeding 10 years. The new riverfront proposed capital in Guntur district is Amaravati, which is under the jurisdiction of APCRDA, the Gross State Domestic Product of the state in the 2016–2017 financial year at current prices stood at ₹6,800.3 billion. The state has a coastline of 974 km with jurisdiction over nearly 15,000 km2 territorial waters, the second longest among all the states of India after Gujarat. It is bordered by Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh in the north, Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and the water body of Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of 30 km2 of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, Andhra Pradesh is composed of two regions, Coastal Andhra, located along the Bay of Bengal, and Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state. These two regions comprise 13 districts, with 9 in Coastal Andhra and 4 in Rayalaseema, Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year. The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the worlds most visited religious sites, a tribe named Andhra has been mentioned in the Sanskrit texts such as Aitareya Brahmana. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhras left north India, archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati, Dharanikota and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire. Amaravati might have been a centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of emperor Ashoka, the Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE, the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BCE to the 3rd century CE. The Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jatiya and Andhra-bhrtya in the Puranic literature, Dharanikota along with Amaravathi was the capital of the later Satavahanas. Amaravathi became a trade and pilgrimage centre during the Satavahana rule. According to the Buddhist tradition, Nagarjuna lived here, possibly in second, Andhra Ikshvakus were one of the earliest recorded ruling dynasties of the Guntur-Krishna regions of Andhra Pradesh. They ruled the eastern Andhra country along the Krishna river during the half of the second century CE. Puranas called Andhra Ikshvakus Shri Parvatiya Andhras, archaeological evidence has suggested that the Andhra Ikshvakus immediately succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley

4. Srikakulam – Srikakulam is a city and the district headquarters of Srikakulam district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a corporation and also the mandal headquarters of Srikakulam mandal in Srikakulam revenue division. As of 2011 census, it was most populous city of Srikaulam district, the city is believed to have been founded by Balarama. The city was known as Chicacole before Indian Independence and this region of Andhra Pradesh was part of Kalinga region at first, and later a part of Gajapati kingdom of Odisha up to the medieval period. Srikakulam was integral part of the domain of Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi during the rule of Kubja Vishnuvardhana, during his rule the Vengi kingdom had expanded from Srikakulam in the north to Nellore in the south. It was under the rule of Kakatiya Dynasty of Warangal during the rule of Ganapati Deva in 13th century CE, Srikakulam was under the rule of illustrious Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagara Empire too. The word Gulshanabad derives from Persian words Shilpa that means Rose garden and it was developed as a town in the Muslim ruling, today you can find more than 10,000 Muslims living in this town following their culture, tradition and values. Srikakulam has been a headquarters for revenue collection under Nizam state of Hyderabad since 1707, nizams of Hyderabad assigned Gulshanabad, Rajahmundry, Eluru and Mustafanagar districts to French India in 1753. French imperialists were driven out from these districts by British imperialists in 1756 during Anglo-French wars, Srikakulam was under the rule of Nizam state of Hyderabad for only a brief period, namely from 1707 to 1753. It was the headquarters for revenue collection of Rajahmundry, Eluru, the French defeated and ended the brief rule of Nizam in 1753, these all districts were thereafter part of French India in 1753. However French imperialists too could not hold their sway over here for a long time, thereafter Srikakulam was under was soon a part of British – Northern Circars. In 1936 the combined Madras-Odisha state was divided to Madras and Odisha, Srikakulam was renamed as Srikakulam taluk, Srikakulam town as Srikakulam municipality since 1857 under British rule. In 1947 after Indian independence, many including Potti Sriramulu fought for separate Andhra State, in 1948 many demanded for Srikakulam district as it was in combined vizag district. First chintada village was proposed as district headquarters by some central leaders, Sitaramareddy on his visit to this area and requested to select Srikakulam as district headquarters at his camp office in Vizianagaram. Sitaramareddy personally saw some places in Srikakulam for selection, and for Srikakulam it is Nagavali, convincing Sitaramareddy. The minister decided and selected Srikakulam as headquarters after reaching Madras, kimidi Kalavenkatarao, ex-revenue minister in the combined Madras state, had done a lot for formation of this district, he was the grandfather of present Vunukuru MLA Kalavenkatarao. On 15 August 1950, at about 4.00 p. m. the district was announced with Srikakulam town as headquarters, at first, Parvatipuram revenue division was part of Srikakulam district and later transferred to Vizianagaram district. Mr. Night was the collector in the combined Vizag Srikakulam

5. Kanyasulkam – Kanyasulkam is a Telugu play written by Gurazada Apparao in 1892. It is one of the earliest modern works in an Indian language, the play portrays the practice of Kanya-sulkam which was common among the priestly Brahmins in Telugu-speaking areas of southern India. Controversial in its time, this continues to be one of the most popular Telugu literary works of all time. A number of expressions used by Gurazada in this play are popular in modern-day Telugu. Gurazada wrote this play to raise awareness about what he felt was a state of affairs in society. Until reading habits prevail among masses, one must look only to the stage to exert such healthy influence, traditionally, Telugu literary works were written in a highly stylistic language with complicated words and meter, these works could only be understood by the educated elite. Gurazadas mission was to out to the masses, so he broke with tradition and wrote in the vibrant. Kanyasulkam drama does have 2 versions, both written by Gurajada Apparao in more than 15 years span, 2nd version of Kanyasulkam was published on 1909. The play is set in the Vizianagaram princely state in British India and it deals primarily with the lives of the upper caste Brahmins of the area, although it offers a few insights into the lives of other people as well. The play centers on Gireesam, an English-educated, resourceful but unscrupulous Vaidiki Brahmin man, and Madhura vani, although it maintains a surface of humor through satire, the play conveys the disgrace to society that outraged Gurazada. k. a. This way the play sought to take on the prejudices and practices of contemporary Indian society head-on, the play also has numerous lighter moments, notably regarding the marriage of the stingy old man, Lubdhavadhanulu. Much of that occurs as dialogue between Girisam and his various love interests, and also during the marriage of Lubdhavadhanulu to a boy disguised as a girl. Contemporary Indian society is depicted in a real fashion, without glorifying it so that it has the effect of being in-your-face. They are very similar in their notions and prejudices to the people one may see in any Indian village even today. He is so unwilling, in fact, that he wouldnt think twice about taking the easiest path to fulfilling his desires and he claims to be a progressionist, but claiming is all he does. In Meenakshi, we may see a woman who might have been widowed even before she hit puberty and she was therefore paying for a mistake that was anyones but hers and was being accused of being unfaithful to a husband she did not have. Ramappa Panthulu is a man and very incompetent one at that. He tries to twist and turn every situation in his favor and he is a victim of his own making

6. Mutyala Saralu – Mutyala Saralu is a compilation of Telugu poems written by Gurazada Apparao in 1910. This has heralded the beginning of modern poetry in Telugu language, the traditional meter is replaced by a new lyrical and four beat balladic rhythm. These poems reflected the social transformation in India. The song has inspired many Indians to dedicate their lives for the service of their Nation, Desamunu preminchumanna, machi annadi penchumanna, votti maatalu kattipettoy, gattimel thalapettavoy. Desamante matti kaadhoyi, desamante manushuloyi Meaning, A country is not made of land, some portion of the Desamunu Preminchumanna song is incorporated in the 1954 Telugu film Jyoti starring Savitri and G. Varalakshmi. The song has the voice of G. Varalakshmi, complete poem in Telugu Wikisource at s, te, దేశమును ప్రేమించుమన్నా Poornamma or Purnamma song is written by Gurazada Apparao in 1912. Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao composed music and sang popular song. Melimi bangaru melatallara kaluvala kannula kannellara tallulaganna pillallara vinnaramma ee kathanu, aatala paatala petikalara kammani matala kommallara ammalaganna ammallara vinnaramma ee kathanu. Kannula kanthulu kaluvala cherenu melimi jerenu meni pasal hamsala jerenu nadakala bedagulu durganu cherenu poornamma, complete poem in Telugu Wikisource at s, te, పూర్ణమ్మ Anthology of poems written by Gurajada Apparao

7. University of Madras – The University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest and premier universities in India, the university was incorporated by an act of the Legislative Council of India. It is a research university and has six campuses in the city viz. Chepauk, Marina, Guindy, Taramani, Maduravoyal. This public petition, which was presented by the Advocate General Mr. George Norton on 11 November 1839, pursuant to this, Lord Elphinstone evolved a plan for the establishment of a central collegiate institution or a ‘university. The University Board was constituted in January 1840 with Mr. George Norton as its President and this was the precursor of the present Presidency College, Chennai. As a result, the University of Madras, organized on the model of the University of London, was incorporated on 5 September 1857 by an Act of the Legislative Council of India. Medical University, Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Periyar University, in 1912 endowments were made to the university to establish departments of Indian History, Archaeology, Comparative Philology and Indian Economics. In that year the university had 17 departments,30 teachers, between 1926 and 1939, the university published the comprehensive Tamil Lexicon dictionary, which is the first among the dictionaries published in any Indian language. The motto scroll is edged red, with black lettering, the English translation of the motto of the University of Madras is, Learning promotes natural talent. The university is spread over six campuses, viz. Chepauk, Marina, Guindy, Taramani, Chetput, the Chepauk campus of the university houses the VCs secretariat, central library, centenary auditorium and the historic Senate House. The oriental and Indian languages departments are located in the Marina Campus, the Guindy campus incorporates the natural sciences departments while the campus at Taramani houses the school of basic medical sciences. The sports union and the garden are based in Chetpet. The University of Madras has a historical monument – Senate House – which is one of the landmarks of the city of Chennai, the university renovated the Senate House in 2006. University of Madras has an alumni network with its alumni taking over many prestigious positions across the world. Abdul Kalam, politicians Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari, C Subramaniam, CN Annadurai and V. K. Krishna Menon, civil servants T. N. Seshan, Benegal Rama Rau and Y. Venugopal Reddy, pioneers Verghese Kurien, Raj Reddy, Rangaswamy Srinivasan and M. S. Swaminathan, economist C. K. Prahalad, K. N. Raj, Raja Chelliah, rangarajan, business persons Indra Nooyi, Ram Shriram and Prathap C. Reddy, cinema actors and directors M. G, ramachandran, Gemini Ganesan and Mani Ratnam, sports stars Viswanathan Anand, Vijay Amritraj, Sureshkumar Devarajulu and Ramanathan Krishnan among others. Madras University has been listed among top ranked universities for its academics

8. Telugu language – Telugu is a Dravidian language native to India. It is also spoken by significant minorities in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and it is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the Government of India. Telugu ranks third by the number of speakers in India. It is one of the scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Approximately 10,000 inscriptions exist in the Telugu language, the speakers of the language call it Telugu or Tenugu. The older forms of the name include Teluṅgu, Tenuṅgu and Teliṅga, the etymology of Telugu is not certain. Some historical scholars have suggested a derivation from Sanskrit triliṅgam, as in Trilinga Desa, tradition holds that Shiva descended as a lingam on three mountains, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam, and Bhimeswaram, which are said to have marked the boundaries of the Trilinga Desa. Atharvana Acharya in the 13th century wrote a grammar of Telugu, Appa Kavi in the 17th century explicitly wrote that Telugu was derived from Trilinga. Scholar Charles P. Brown comments that it was a strange notion as all the predecessors of Appa Kavi had no knowledge of such a derivation. George Abraham Grierson and other linguists doubt this derivation, holding rather that Telugu was the older term, another view holds that tenugu is derived from the proto-Dravidian word ten– south to mean the people who lived in the south/southern direction. The name telugu then, is a result of n -> l alternation established in Telugu, according to the natve tradition Telugu grammar has a hoary past. Sage Kanva was said to be the first grammarian of Telugu, a Rajeswara Sarma discussed the hisoricity and content of Kanvas grammar written in Sanskrit. He cited twenty grammatical aphorisms ascribed to Kanva, and concluded that Kanva wrote an ancient Telugu Grammar which was lost, according to the Russian linguist M. S. Andronov, Telugu split from the Proto-Dravidian languages between 1500 and 1000 BC. According to linguist Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Telugu, as a Dravidian language, descends from Proto-Dravidian, linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. The material evidence suggests that the speakers of Proto-Dravidian were of the associated with the Neolithic societies of South India. A legend gives the Lepakshi town a significant place in the Ramayana — this was where the bird Jatayu fell, when Sri Rama reached the spot, he saw the bird and said compassionately, “Le Pakshi” — ‘rise, bird’ in Telugu. This indicates the presence of Telugu Language during Ramayana period, there is a mention of Telugu people or Telugu country in ancient Tamil literature as Telunka Nadu. Telugu words were found in Hebrew literature, inscriptions with Telugu words dating back to 400 BC to 100 BC have been discovered in Bhattiprolu in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh

9. Telugu drama – Telugu Rangasthalam is an Indian theatre in the Telugu language, based in the states of Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana. Gurazada Apparao wrote the play, Kanyasulkam in 1892, which is considered the greatest play in the Telugu language. Pullaiah is cited as the father of Telugu theatre movement, vemuri Gaggaiah was an important member of the Mylavarama Bala Bharathi Nataka Samajam in Mylavaram, Krishna district during 1913-28. Gaggaiah became a name for mythological roles. He won recognition in drama as Yama, god of death, in Sati Savitri, some other prominent roles were as the eponymous Mymvana, and as Jalandhara in Sati Tulasi. Tirupati Venkata Kavulu have dramatised several of the Hindu epics into dramas, several of their plays, especially pandavodyogavijayalu have been widely known among many drama clubs and audiences across Andhra Pradesh. The Nandi Natakotsavam Awards are given every year by the government for achievements in Telugu theatre, kalyanam Raghuramaiah, A recipient of the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, and the Padmashri, He was known for the roles of Krishna or Dushyantha, Bhavanisankar, Narada etc. He performed those roles for about 60 years and he indulged in elaborate raga alapana, based on different ragas while rendering padyams. One of the finest method actors, He had the ability to sing padyams and songs through whistle, by putting his finger in mouth and he has acted in various dramas and gave more than 20,000 stage performances. He was called the Nightingale of the Stage by Rabindranath Tagore Balijepalli Lakshmikantam was a dramatist remembered for the masterpiece Harischandra written in 1924, peesapati Narasimha Murty was trained under Kilambi Krishnamacharyulu in 1934 and started his acting career with Rangoon Rowdy in 1938. In 1946, he enacted as Sri Krishna in Pandavodyoga Vijayalu and he won the prize as best Sri Krishna in the “Akhilandhra Pandava Udyoga Vijayalu” competitions held in 1949 at Guntur. Sthanam Narasimha Rao was well known for playing stunning female characters and was a recipient of a Padma Sri Award and his depiction of the Sringara rasa as Satyabhama in Srikrishna tulabharam kept audiences spellbound. Equally enchanting performances in Roshanara, Deva Devi in Vipranarayana and the eponymous Chintamani made his place in Telugu theater permanent and his most memorable acting, however, was as Madhuravani in Gurajada Appa Raos comedy Kanyasulkam. Sthanam had over 1,500 performances to his credit and his productions of classics on All India Radio include Kanyasulkam and Ganapati. He acted in Telugu films such as and authored a book about his vast acting experience entitled and he was felicitated in Rangoon and gifted golden crown in 1938. Chittooru Nagaiah was closely connected to Rama Vilasa Sabha, an association in Chittoor. Banda Kanakalingeshwara Rao was a member of Kendriya Sangeet Natak Akademi since 1952, gollapudi Maruti Raos volume of essays on theatre, Telugu Nataka Rangam, was prescribed as a textbook for the Department of Theatre Arts, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. His Telugu play Vandemaataram, the first one in Telugu about the Sino-Indian War, was published by Andhra Pradesh State Information & Public Relations Department, chilukamarri Nataraj is playwright, actor, Director and Organizer, who is the founder President of telangana Rangasthala Samakhya

10. Epigraphy – Specifically excluded from epigraphy are the historical significance of an epigraph as a document and the artistic value of a literary composition. A person using the methods of epigraphy is called an epigrapher or epigraphist, for example, the Behistun inscription is an official document of the Achaemenid Empire engraved on native rock at a location in Iran. Epigraphists are responsible for reconstructing, translating, and dating the trilingual inscription and it is the work of historians, however, to determine and interpret the events recorded by the inscription as document. Often, epigraphy and history are competences practiced by the same person, an epigraph is any sort of text, from a single grapheme to a lengthy document. Epigraphy overlaps other competences such as numismatics or palaeography, when compared to books, most inscriptions are short. Typically the material is durable, but the durability might be an accident of circumstance, epigraphy is a primary tool of archaeology when dealing with literate cultures. The US Library of Congress classifies epigraphy as one of the sciences of history. Epigraphy also helps identify a forgery, epigraphic evidence formed part of the discussion concerning the James Ossuary, the study of ancient handwriting, usually in ink, is a separate field, palaeography. The character of the writing, the subject of epigraphy, is a quite separate from the nature of the text. Texts inscribed in stone are usually for public view and so they are different from the written texts of each culture. Not all inscribed texts are public, however, in Mycenaean Greece the deciphered texts of Linear B were revealed to be used for economic. Informal inscribed texts are graffiti in its original sense, the science of epigraphy has been developing steadily since the 16th century. Principles of epigraphy vary culture by culture, and the infant science in European hands concentrated on Latin inscriptions at first, individual contributions have been made by epigraphers such as Georg Fabricius, August Wilhelm Zumpt, Theodor Mommsen, Emil Hübner, Franz Cumont, Louis Robert. The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, begun by Mommsen and other scholars, has published in Berlin since 1863. It is the largest and most extensive collection of Latin inscriptions, New fascicles are still produced as the recovery of inscriptions continues. The Corpus is arranged geographically, all inscriptions from Rome are contained in volume 6 and this volume has the greatest number of inscriptions, volume 6, part 8, fascicle 3 was just recently published. Specialists depend on such on-going series of volumes in which newly discovered inscriptions are published, often in Latin, Greek epigraphy has unfolded in the hands of a different team, with different corpora. The first is Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum of which four volumes came out, again at Berlin and this marked a first attempt at a comprehensive publication of Greek inscriptions copied from all over the Greek-speaking world

11. Visakhapatnam district – Visakhapatnam district is a district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is one of the nine districts in the state. Buddhist era Visakhapatnam history goes back to the 6th century BCE and its name can be found in Hindu and Buddhist texts that date back to ancient times. Vizag, as Visakhapatnam is often referred to, has been mentioned by Panini, the city was also a part of the Kalinga kingdom, which was later conquered by the emperor Ashoka. Visakha District is a large Buddhist remnants hub with many documented and undocumented from north to south border of the district along the coast line. After independence In 1979, part of the district was split to help form Vizianagaram district, Visakhapatnam District is currently a part of the Red Corridor. According to the 2011 census Visakhapatnam district has a population of 4,288,113 This gives it a ranking of 44th in India, the district has a population density of 384 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 11. 89%, Visakhapatnam has a sex ratio of 1003 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 67. 7%. Visakhapatnam district has a population of 4,288,113 people of which 57. 95% is urban as of 2011 census, Visakhapatnam district occupies an area of approximately 11,161 square kilometres, comparatively equivalent to Canadas Cape Breton Island. Climate Visakhapatnam district is the hub for industry and education in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Visakhapatnam district hosts the Vizag Steel Plant, household indicators In 2007–2008, the International Institute for Population Sciences interviewed 1,233 households in 30 villages across the district. They found that 82. 1% had access to electricity,73. 9% had drinking water,42. 6% toilet facilities,22. 6% of girls wed before the legal age of 18 and 73. 8% of interviewees carried a BPL card. The district has four divisions, namely Anakapalli, Paderu, Narsipatnam and Visakhapatnam. These revenue divisions are divided into 43 mandals in the district and these district consists of 3265 villages and 15 towns including,1 municipal corporation,2 municipalities and 12 census towns. Visakhapatnam city is the municipal corporation and the 3 municipalities in the district are Anakapalle. The 12 census towns are Bowluvada, Chodavaram, Chintapalle, Gudivada, Kantabamsuguda, Mulakuddu, Nakkapalle, Narsipatnam, Peda Boddepalle, Payakaraopeta, Upper Sileru Project Site Camp, There are 10 mandals in Visakhapatnam division,11 each in Narsipatnam, Anakapalle and Paderu divisions. The 43 mandals under their revenue divisions are listed below, There are three parliamentary and 15 assembly constituencies in Visakhapatnam district, the parliamentary constituencies are Anakapalli, Visakhapatnam and Araku. The total of road network of the district is 945.443 km

12. Brahmin – Brahmin is a varna in Hinduism specialising as priests of sacred learning across generations. However, Indian texts suggest that Brahmins were often agriculturalists in medieval India, the Gautama Dharmasutra states in verse 10.3 that it is obligatory on a Brahmin to learn and teach the Vedas. The text forbids a Brahmin from engaging in the trade of animals for slaughter, meat, medicines, the Apastamba Dharmasutra asserts in verse 1.20.10 that trade is generally not sanctioned for Brahmins, but in the times of adversity he may do so. The chapter 1.20 of Apastamba, states Olivelle, forbids the trade of the following under any circumstances, human beings, meat, skins, weapons, barren cows, sesame seeds, pepper, and merits. The 1st millennium CE Dharmasastras, that followed the Dharmasutras contain similar recommendations on occupations for a Brahmin, both in prosperous or normal times, and in the times of adversity. The widely studied Manusmriti, for example, states, Except during a time of adversity and he should gather wealth just sufficient for his subsistence through irreproachable activities that are specific to him, without fatiguing his body. –4. 2–4.3 He must never follow a worldly occupation for the sake of livelihood, one who seeks happiness should become supremely content and self controlled, for happiness is rooted in contentment and its opposite is the root of unhappiness. –4. 11–4.12 The Manusmriti recommends that a Brahmins occupation must never involve forbidden activities such as producing or trading poison, weapons, meat, trapping birds and others. It also lists six occupations that it deems proper for a Brahmin, teaching, studying, offering yajna, officiating at yajna, giving gifts, of these, states Manusmriti, three which provide a Brahmin with a livelihood are teaching, officiating at yajna, and accepting gifts. The text states that teaching is best, and ranks the accepting of gifts as the lowest of the six, in the times of adversity, Manusmriti recommends that a Brahmin may live by engaging in the occupations of the warrior class, or agriculture or cattle herding or trade. Of these, Manusmriti in verses 10. 83–10, the term Brahmin in Indian texts has signified someone who is good and virtuous, not just someone of priestly class. Both Buddhist and Brahmanical literature, states Patrick Olivelle, repeatedly define Brahmin not in terms of family of birth and these virtues and characteristics mirror the values cherished in Hinduism during the Sannyasa stage of life, or the life of renunciation for spiritual pursuits. Brahmins, states Olivelle, were the class from which most ascetics came. The earliest inferred reference to Brahmin as a social class is in the Rigveda, occurs once. Ancient texts describing community-oriented Vedic yajna rituals mention four to five priests, the hotar, the adhvaryu, the udgatar, the functions associated with the priests were, The Hotri recites invocations and litanies drawn from the Rigveda. The Adhvaryu is the assistant and is in charge of the physical details of the ritual like measuring the ground. The Udgatri is the chanter of hymns set to melodies and music drawn from the Samaveda, the udgatar, like the hotar, chants the introductory, accompanying and benediction hymns. The Brahmin recites from the Atharvaveda, the Ritvij is the chief operating priest

13. Vizianagaram – Vizianagaram is a city and district headquarters of Vizianagaram district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipality and also the headquarters of Vizianagaram mandal. It is located 18 km inland from the Bay of Bengal and 42 km to the northeast of Visakhapatnam, during his rule the Vengi kingdom had expanded from Srikakulam in the north to Nellore in the south. It was under the rule of Kakatiya Dynasty of Warangal during the rule of Ganapati Deva in 13th century CE, the area was overrun by the neighbouring Gajapatis for some time. The Vijayanagara empire fought several wars and ultimately drove out the Gajapatis, the area was under the rule of illustrious Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagara Empire too. After a brief rule from Golconda, the rule of Nizam state of Hyderabad followed, nizams ruled for the period 1707 to 1753. Srikakulam to the north was the headquarters for revenue collection of Rajahmundry, Eluru. The French defeated and ended the rule of Nizam in 1753, however French imperialists too could not hold their sway over here for a long time, and were soon driven out from here by British imperialists, during 1756 in Anglo-French wars. The war was fought between the MahaRaja of Vizianagaram and the Rajah of Bobbili on 24 January 1757, rulers of this princely state belong to the Pusapati family. The village Pooshpadu in Nandigama Taluq was built by Amala Raju, the village later came to be known as Pusapadu, and the Kshatriyas living there came to be known as Pusapatis. The history of area is linked with the history of London. Excavations at this town revealed copper coins belonging to the remains of 900 B. C, Vizianagaram is located at 18. 12°N83. 42°E /18.12,83.42. It has an elevation of 74 metres. The district is bounded on the east by Srikakulam District, on the west and south by Visakhapatnam district, on the southeast by the Bay of Bengal, the principal rivers flowing in the district are Nagavali, Vegavathi, Gomukhi, Suvarnamukhi, Champavathi and Gostani. The Nagavali is the river, which flows in about 112 km in Vizianagaram district. The River Gosthani has its origin in Ananthagiri forest area and flows through Srungavarapukota, the Suvarnamukhi River originates in the hills of Saluru mandal, travels in an eastern direction and finally joins the Nagavali at Sangam village in Palakonda mandal of Srikakulam District. Vegavathi originates in hills of Pachipenta mandal and flows almost parallel to Suvarnamukhi. Rivers and irrigation projects Major Rivers flowing through the city are Nagavali, Vegavathi, Gomukhi, Suvarnamukhi, Champavathi, the climate of Vizianagaram district is characterised by high humidity nearly all the year round, with oppressive summers and good seasonal rainfall

14. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety

15. Witchcraft – Witchcraft broadly means the practice of, and belief in, magical skills and abilities that are able to be exercised by individuals and certain social groups. Witchcraft often occupies a religious, divinatory or medicinal role, and is present within societies. The concept of witchcraft and the belief in its existence have existed throughout recorded history and it posits a theosophical conflict between good and evil, where witchcraft was generally evil and often associated with the Devil and Devil worship. Christian views in the day are diverse and cover the gamut of views from intense belief and opposition to non-belief. From the mid-20th century, witchcraft – sometimes called contemporary witchcraft to clearly distinguish it from older beliefs – became the name of a branch of modern paganism and it is most notably practiced in the Wiccan and modern witchcraft traditions, and no longer practices in secrecy. The Western mainstream Christian view is far from the only societal perspective about witchcraft, Beliefs related to witchcraft and magic in these cultures were at times influenced by the prevailing Western concepts. Suspicion of modern medicine due to beliefs about illness being due to witchcraft also continues in countries to this day. HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease are two examples of infectious disease epidemics whose medical care and containment has been severely hampered by regional beliefs in witchcraft. Other severe medical conditions whose treatment is hampered in this way include tuberculosis, leprosy, epilepsy, the word witchcraft derives from the Old English wiccecræft, a compound of wicce and cræft. This definition was pioneered in a study of central African magical beliefs by E. E. Evans-Pritchard, European witchcraft is seen by historians and anthropologists as an ideology for explaining misfortune, however, this ideology has manifested in diverse ways, as described below. Some modern commentators believe the malefic nature of witchcraft is a Christian projection, many examples appear in early texts, such as those from ancient Egypt and Babylonia. Malicious magic users can become a cause for disease, sickness in animals, bad luck, sudden death, impotence. Witchcraft of a benign and socially acceptable sort may then be employed to turn the malevolence aside. The folk magic used to identify or protect against malicious magic users is often indistinguishable from that used by the witches themselves, there has also existed in popular belief the concept of white witches and white witchcraft, which is strictly benevolent. Many neopagan witches strongly identify with this concept, and profess ethical codes that prevent them from performing magic on a person without their request. Probably the most obvious characteristic of a witch was the ability to cast a spell, spell being the word used to signify the means employed to carry out a magical action. A spell could consist of a set of words, a formula or verse, or a ritual action, or any combination of these. Strictly speaking, necromancy is the practice of conjuring the spirits of the dead for divination or prophecy – although the term has also applied to raising the dead for other purposes

16. Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju – Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju GCIE was the Maharaja of the Vizianagaram kingdom. The house of Pusapati belongs to the Solar Dynasty Kshatriyas, eastwick, The Maharajah of Vijayanagaram traces his ancestry from the Sisodia branch of the Guhilot tribes and is of the Vasistha Gotra. A brother of the Maharana migrated to Oudh, and in 529 A. D. his descendant, Madhava Varma, marched with four clans into the Deccan and his capital was Bezawada, afterwards transferred to Vijayanagar. His descendants reigned over this kingdom for 921 years, in 1512 they were subjected by Sultan Kuli of the Golkonda dynasty. Under the 5th King of that line an ancestor of the present ruler of Vijayanagaram was made Subahdar of the North Sarkars, the Emperor Aurangzeb confirmed the Subahdar in his office and gave him a two-edged sword, which is still used in the coat-of-arms of the family. In 1817 the father of the present ruler made over his estate to Government to clear off his debts of 200,000 rupees, in 1827 he again made over his estate and died at Banaras, leaving a debt of 1,100,000. His successor, the later Maharajah Vijayarama Gajapati Raju III, was recognized in the room of his father in 1845 and had several honors conferred on him by the British Government. Lord Northbrook obtained for him the title of His Highness, and had his name enrolled among those of chiefs entitled to visits from the Viceroy. He was clear of debt and distinguished himself by many acts of charity and his son was born December 31,1850 and a daughter is married to His Highness Maharaj Kumar Singh, cousin and heir apparent of H. H. Maharajah of Rewah. The area of the country is 2,965 square miles with a population of 800,000 persons, still in the coastal Andhra region, the last name Pusapati is associated with this ruling Dynasty. Additionally, the Pusapati has obtained power in modern India through participation in Government, the Rajahs of Vizianagaram obtained the title of Gajapathi, by right of conquest after the battle of Nandapur, in the Northern Circars in the sixteenth century. Ananda Gajapati was the second of the three children, born to Maharajah Vijayarama Gajapati Raju, narayana Gajapati was his elder brother and Appala Kondayamba was his younger sister. Ananda Gajapati learnt Sanskrit under the guidance of eminent scholars like Bhagavathula Hari Sastry, Mysore Bhimacharyulu, major Thomson and Lingam Lakshmoji taught him English. He was proficient in Latin and French, during the rule of Maharajah Ananda Gajapati, education, literature and music received a tremendous fillip and Telugu culture throve considerably. Known widely for both munificence and cultural magnificence, Ananda Gajapati Raju was granted the title of Maharajah. He was a Member of the Madras Legislative Council for many years and was created a G. C. I. E. in 1892. He was held in awe, reverence and admiration as the most cultured and munificent, the most erudite and graceful, Maharajah Ananda Gajapati had been acclaimed throughout the Telugu speaking world as Abhinava Andhra Boja. He richly deserved the title both for his accomplishments and tastes

17. S. Srinivasa Iyengar – Seshadri Srinivasa Iyengar CIE, also seen as Sreenivasa Iyengar and Srinivasa Ayyangar, was an Indian lawyer, freedom-fighter and politician from the Indian National Congress. Iyengar was the Advocate-General of Madras Presidency from 1916 to 1920, Srinivasa Iyengar was the son-in-law of renowned lawyer and first Indian Advocate-general of Madras, Sir Vembaukum Bhashyam Aiyangar. Iyengars followers called him Lion of the South, Srinivasa Iyengar was born in the Ramanathapuram district of Madras Presidency. He graduated in law and practised as a lawyer in the Madras High Court rising to become Advocate-General in 1916 and he also served as a member of the bar council and was nominated as the law member of the Governors executive council. He participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement, however, in 1923, he broke away along with other leaders as Motilal Nehru and Chittaranjan Das due to differences with Mahatma Gandhi over participating in elections. The breakaway faction later formed the Swarajya Party, in later life, he established the Independence of India league and organised protests against the Simon Commission. He retired from due to differences with other Congress politicians over the goal of Dominion status. He briefly returned to politics in 1938, on 19 May 1941, Iyengar died in his house in Madras. Srinivasa Iyengar remains the youngest lawyer from the Madras bar to be made Advocate-General, Srinivasa Iyengar was also the mentor of freedom-fighters U. K. Kamaraj, who became the President of Tamil Nadu Congress Committee. Srinivasa Iyengars 1939 book on Maynes Hindu laws is a much-acclaimed, during Iyengars tenure as leader, the Congress was often criticised by Periyar and politicians of the Justice Party as a party dominated by Brahmins. This was because top Congress leaders as Iyengar, Sathyamurthy and C, Srinivasa Iyengar was born on 11 September 1874 to Seshadri Iyengar, a prominent landowner of Ramanathapuram district. His parents were orthodox Sri Vaishnava Brahmins of Madras Presidency, Srinivasa Iyengar had his schooling in Madurai and graduated from Presidency College, Madras. His early schooling was in his tongue, Tamil. Srinivasa Iyengar commenced practice as lawyer in the Madras High Court in 1898 and he had an extensive knowledge of Hindu Dharmasastra and this helped him make a mark for himself. Soon, Iyengar became the right-hand for C, during this time, the Indian freedom-fighter S. Satyamurthi worked as a junior under Iyengar. Later, he followed Iyengar into the Indian National Congress and the Indian independence movement, Satyamurthi worked under Iyengar while he was the president of the Swarajya Party. He later referred to Iyengar as his political mentor, in 1911, Bhupendranath Basu introduced the Civil Marriages Bill in the Imperial legislature

18. Gidugu Venkata Ramamoorty – Gidugu Venkata Ramamurthy was a Telugu writer and one of the earliest modern Telugu linguists and social visionaries during the British rule. He championed the cause of using a language comprehensible to the man as opposed to the scholastic language. Gidugu Ramamurthy was born at Parvatalapeta, Srikakulam near Vamsadhara River on the border of Orissa, His father Veeraraju worked as revenue inspector and it was a struggle for him to survive. He studied privately and passed his matriculation, staying in his sister’s house and began his life as a teacher in Gajapati Maharaja School, albeit being a historian as well, Ramamurthy was unable to read ‘Sasanas’ on stone tablets clearly. To understand them he studied books that were imported by Vizianagaram Maharaja’s son Kumara Raja and he studied various language scripts and after deciphering the ‘Sasanas’ he wrote books on languages and scripts. Ramamurthy had studied languages and comprehended the philosophy of language. He pleaded for lucidity in text books, in his time there was only a poetic approach and never was a prosaic treat. He launched a monthly titled Telugu to drive his point and he gave Savara language a script and prepared lexicons. During his research for Savara language, he had to travel in the resulting in excessive use of quinine due to which he became deaf. The language of the sasanas, the language loaded with Sanskrit diction of the kavyas, for many of the Telugu speakers themselves, kavya bhasha is mostly incomprehensible. The grandhika bhasha then taught in schools and colleges did not promote the skills necessary either for understanding or communicating effectively in life situations. The development of people depends on their language skills, when scholarship is limited to the creamy layers of society because of the difficulty in learning language, the rest of the society is denied access and opportunity for development. Gidugu was an eminent language visionary, as a pedagogue he was decades ahead of his time. He recognized the primacy of oracy and the efficacy of the by now accepted direct method of language teaching, for teaching Telugu, he wanted the spoken language to be the medium of instruction. This engulfed him in a war with the orthodox Sanskrit-educated pundits, due to Gidugus tenacity and commitment, sishta vyavaharika gained currency and acceptance. Between 1910 and 1914 he went about talking, arguing, convincing, making rapid strides even in the face of stiff opposition, balakavisaranyam, Gadya Chintamani, Andhra Pandita Bhishakkula Bhasha Bheshajam and Vyasavali are his efforts to convince and plead with his opponents to see reason. Ramamurthy saw in his own lifetime people seeing his point and rallying round him, kandukuri Veeresalingam Pantulu founded Vartamana Vyavaaharikandhra Bhasha Parivartaka Samajam and as its president endorsed Gidugus views. Andhra Sahitya Parshat, Kakinada, withdrew from the fight in 1924, in 1933, Abhinavandhra Kavi Panditasabha, under the chairmanship of Chilukuri Narayana Rao Pantulu, resolved that modern vyavaharika must be the medium of instruction

19. Wikisource

CPI-Maoist cadres blew up a tower of the Doordarshan, the government television network, using detonators at Chintapalli village in the Visakhapatnam District. The Maoists also blasted a government quarter situated near the tower.

CPI-Maoist cadres blew up an electric sub-station in the Chintapalli mandal (administrative division) of Visakhapatnam District. The incident disrupted the power supply to several villages in Chintapalli and G K Veedhi divisions.

The Maoists blew up the house of a former Member of the State Legislative Assembly, Balaraju, in the Chintapalli mandal. The Maoists also tried to attack the Chintapalli Police station but fled after Police opened fire. The CPI-Maoist cadres also set ablaze a large number of tyres at a bus complex in Chintapalli and put up red flags, banners and posters all over the area.

Two cadres of the CPI-Maoist, identified as Aluvala Swamy alias Suryam, a leader wanted in Orissa and Chhattisgarh, and P. Ramana alias Uma, a ‘commander’, surrendered before the Warangal Police. They were active in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh.

Nannepogu Ravindra Babu alias Sudarshan, a former ‘commander’ of the Nallamala Platoon Section-A, surrendered before the Guntur Police.

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