by Akiko Takano
Globalization progresses in the world, and coming and going of people, things, money, and information is taking place on a global scale now across a border. The spread of the internet that assists the globalization simplified access different culture to people. When communication technology and means of transportation did not yet develop, it was common that the people knew the event of even the neighboring village after a few days passed. However, now we can just know that what happen at this point by TV, a radio, newspapers, and the Internet in the world and there are many people going to the foreign countries and coming from the countries. When the coming and going of people becomes active, the interchange of the culture becomes active, too. I discuss how the culture changes by globalization in this essay. At first I explain the thing which globalization brings culture and then I discuss how we should deal with globalization of the culture.
The culture that spread through the world by globalization is American culture. For example, there is McDonald’s anywhere now in the world. Also, Disney is the character which is the most famous in the world. I think that the life of world people may change in Americanization. In japan, culture products of made in USA overflow now. The people imitate the fashion of America, listen to American music, eat a hamburger and drink Coke. Indeed, it may be impossible to put take on this trend. However, it is important to receive he different culture of other countries and send to a thing, the world I follow the unique culture of the own country while receiving the different culture of other countries by globalization and protect the unique culture of the own country at the same time, and send the own culture to the world. Japan has culture of traditional wabi sabi, and the modern Japanese comics ‘Manga’ and animated cartoon receive a high evaluation in the world.
Globalization advances, and there is the criticism that the cultures becomes Americanization and equalizes, on the other hand, the culture of the own country became easy to send and it is possible to develop variety of the culture. The influence that globalization gives in culture is big, but not only criticize the negative aspect, but also find a positive aspect. I think that we should balance with the reception of the culture of other countries, protection and sending of the culture of the own country.
MitsuiHirotaka. (２００５). “比較文化の心理学 カルチャーは社会を超えるのか”. kyoto: ナカニシヤ出版
Cultural Globalization: Short Essay on Cultural Globalization!
Nowadays, there is much talk and discussion about cultural globalization, i.e., a common culture is developing across the globe. To some extent, it is true despite some resistance from national culture, as both are developing side by side. Generally, the word ‘culture’ is used to mean ‘the total way of life’ to include economic, political and social norms, values and behaviour.
Globalization is seen as the intermixing of people, cultures, economies and technologies. Modem cultural globalization is a new phenomenon. It started with economic globalization—spread of transnational corporations and global commodities, especially food and drinks items like pizza and coke, and dress material such as Levi jeans, Reebok and Nike shoes, etc.
In this way, we are all sharing in a common transnational form of consumption. This developing consumerism has encouraged mass common consumer culture which reflects a powerful grip on societies throughout the world. As consumerism spreads, changes are visible in lifestyles, cultural tastes, food habits, dress patterns and in modes of entertainment also.
As an example, gastroenteritis—a disease associated with eating habits—reflects the impact of globalization. The rise of eating disorder, use of more and more fast foods and irregularity in eating have contributed much to the disease of gastric disorder.
Neo-Marxist sociologists argue that the process of globalization is not only limited to consumer articles, but it is also accompanied by ideas and more generally ideologies which sustain the consumer culture. Changes even in norms and values are quite striking. Globalization encourages a growing integration and convergence of cultural relations.
The concept of cultural globalization is closely linked with economic globalization. Mike Featherstone (1990) argued that as a result of the development of financial markets, the main actors share many business and lifestyles norms and values.
As an example, he cited that there is a close relationship between leisure activities and work. Other scholars have stressed on the emergence of global patterns of consumption and consumerism, the cultivation of cosmopolitan lifestyles, and the spread of popular culture (e.g., Madonna or Michael Jackson’s latest songs) as the basis of the development of cultural globalization.
Thus, increased economic linkages led to cultural influences across countries. The key agents of globalization of culture are transnational corporations, cultural and media agencies that go beyond the nation-state.
In spreading cultural globalization, technology has played a crucial role. Technology, in reality, has shrunk the world in our palm. Revolutions in electronic communication (such as radio, TV, cinema, telephone, mobile, fax, Internet, etc.) and rapid means of transportation have produced an indelible impact on local, regional and national cultures because these means can now reach swiftly even the remotest corner of any country.
As a result, the world is slowly and slowly becoming as one place. Both the media and geographical mobility feed this perception. Giddens (1997) has called this phenomenon as ‘time-space distantiation’ meaning separation of time and space brought about by modern communication.
Problems, like floods in Thailand or Indonesia, famine in Ethiopia, tsunami in Japan and events like World Football Competition or Olympics in China or England have a global dimension. Similarly, creations of international economic, political, social and other agencies like UNO, WHO, UNESCO, UNDP, IMF, World Bank, human rights organizations, and the complex interchange between world systems, have contributed to a large extent global cultural homogeneity.
Over and above, science and secularization of thought are the main factors in developing the critical and innovative character of the modern outlook and this in turn has helped in spreading cultural globalization. People no longer assume that customs or habits are acceptable merely because they have the age-old authority of tradition.
On the contrary, our ways of life have increasingly based on rationality. In addition to how we think, the content of ideas has also changed. Ideals of self-betterment, freedom, equality and democratic participation are largely creations of the past two or three centuries. Such ideals have served to mobilize the process of globalization of culture.
Globalization has affected cultures in two ways: Firstly, it has tried to homogenize the cultures. We can see this in dress pattern such as pent and shirt and to some extent in food recipes—pizza, Chinese noodles, etc. On the other hand, globalization has helped in the resurgence of local culture. This we can observe in the revival of traditional cultures and reforming of the identity.
Cultural globalization is also marked with some new trends in human relations. Recognition of a worldwide ecological crisis, the development of worldwide concern about health problems such as AIDS and other diseases, extension of the concept of human rights and the creation of global democratic movements are a few examples of integration that is taking place between different nation-states.